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(plano -> prano)
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{{Japanese plate}}
 
{{Japanese plate}}
The '''Sakura Reflex Plano''' (さくらレフレックスプラノ)<REF> The camera is sometimes called "Sakura Reflex Prano". The exact Roman spelling is unclear, but "Plano" seems more plausible. </REF> was the first Japanese SLR, made from 1907 by [[Konica|Rokuoh-sha]], the manufacturing branch of [[Konica|Konishi]] (predecessor of [[Konica]]), and by various subcontractors.<REF> Lewis, p.20, however says that the Sakura Reflex Plano "so closely resembled the Western originals there is some question whether they were really Japanese copies, or whether they were imported cameras sold under the Sakura name". </REF> It was succeeded by the similar '''Idea Reflex''' in 1910, then by a different Idea Reflex model in 1911.
+
The '''Sakura Reflex Prano''' (さくらレフレックスプラノ)<REF> The name "Prano" is sometimes written "Plano" by mistake. The two spellings would be pronounced the same in Japanese, but "Prano" is confirmed by an advertisement reproduced in [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/prano41.htm this page at R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha]. </REF> was the first Japanese SLR, made from 1907 by [[Konica|Rokuoh-sha]], the manufacturing branch of [[Konica|Konishi]] (predecessor of [[Konica]]), and by various subcontractors.<REF> Lewis, p.20, however says that the Sakura Reflex Prano "so closely resembled the Western originals there is some question whether they were really Japanese copies, or whether they were imported cameras sold under the Sakura name". </REF> It was succeeded by the similar '''Idea Reflex''' in 1910, then by a different Idea Reflex model in 1911.
   
== The Sakura Reflex Plano and Idea Reflex (1910) ==
+
== The Sakura Reflex Prano and Idea Reflex (1910) ==
The only picture of the '''Sakura Reflex Plano''' observed so far is a drawing taken from an original catalogue.<REF> Illustration reproduced in Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, in [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/detail.php?id=1033&key=103310371009&APage=1 this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology], and in [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> It shows an exact copy of the [[Rochester]] [[Premo Reflecting Camera]], with a box-shaped wooden body. There is a folding bed at the front; the lens standard is mounted on bellows and slides out of the main box. There is a large viewing hood at the top, further lengthened by trellis struts. A lever is visible on the right-hand side of the body, perhaps used to raise the mirror and trip the shutter.
+
The only picture of the '''Sakura Reflex Prano''' observed so far is a drawing taken from an original catalogue.<REF> Illustration reproduced in Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, in [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/detail.php?id=1033&key=103310371009&APage=1 this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology], and in [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> It shows an exact copy of the [[Rochester]] [[Premo Reflecting Camera]], with a box-shaped wooden body. There is a folding bed at the front; the lens standard is mounted on bellows and slides out of the main box. There is a large viewing hood at the top, further lengthened by trellis struts. A lever is visible on the right-hand side of the body, perhaps used to raise the mirror and trip the shutter.
   
 
The camera is said to have a focal plane shutter, initially giving 1/75 to 1/1200 speeds.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> Other speed ranges are reported, with 1/1000 top speed.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/detail.php?id=1033&key=103310371009&APage=1 this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology]. </REF> The cameras were certainly hand-made one at a time, and these small variations are not surprising.
 
The camera is said to have a focal plane shutter, initially giving 1/75 to 1/1200 speeds.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> Other speed ranges are reported, with 1/1000 top speed.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/detail.php?id=1033&key=103310371009&APage=1 this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology]. </REF> The cameras were certainly hand-made one at a time, and these small variations are not surprising.
   
It is said that the Sakura Reflex Plano was only available in 4×5in format, called {{nimaigake}} (二枚掛) in Japan at the time.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> It was offered with various lenses from [[Carl Zeiss]] or [[Goerz]].<REF> Lists are given in Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and in [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. They disagree on the focal length, the former saying 12.8cm, 15cm and 15.5cm, and the latter saying 21cm. </REF> It was also available without a lens, reportedly for ¥135.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10. </REF>
+
It is said that the Sakura Reflex Prano was only available in 4×5in format, called {{nimaigake}} (二枚掛) in Japan at the time.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> It was offered with various lenses from [[Carl Zeiss]] or [[Goerz]].<REF> Lists are given in Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10, and in [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm this page of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. They disagree on the focal length, the former saying 12.8cm, 15cm and 15.5cm, and the latter saying 21cm. </REF> It was also available without a lens, reportedly for ¥135.<REF> Sakai, p.18 of {{KKS}} no.10. </REF>
   
The camera was renamed '''Idea Reflex''' in 1910.<REF> Kikuoka, p.28 of {{KKS}} no.10; [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/11year.htm camera list of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> It seems that the catalogue entry for this model was illustrated with the exact same drawing as for the Sakura Reflex Plano.<REF> Drawing reproduced in Kikuoka, p.28 of {{KKS}} no.10. </REF> It is said that {{tefuda}} (8×10.5cm) and {{kabine}} (12×16.5cm) models were introduced, and top speed is reported as 1/1200.<REF> Kikuoka, p.28 of {{KKS}} no.10. </REF>
+
The camera was renamed '''Idea Reflex''' in 1910.<REF> Kikuoka, p.28 of {{KKS}} no.10; [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/11year.htm camera list of the R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]. </REF> It seems that the catalogue entry for this model was illustrated with the exact same drawing as for the Sakura Reflex Prano.<REF> Drawing reproduced in Kikuoka, p.28 of {{KKS}} no.10. </REF> It is said that {{tefuda}} (8×10.5cm) and {{kabine}} (12×16.5cm) models were introduced, and top speed is reported as 1/1200.<REF> Kikuoka, p.28 of {{KKS}} no.10. </REF>
   
 
== The Idea Reflex (1911) ==
 
== The Idea Reflex (1911) ==
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== Links ==
 
== Links ==
 
In Japanese:
 
In Japanese:
* [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/detail.php?id=1033&key=103310371009&APage=1 Sakura Reflex Plano] in the [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/set_brws_01.php?id=1033 Camera database] of the [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/ Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology]
+
* [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/detail.php?id=1033&key=103310371009&APage=1 Sakura Reflex Prano] in the [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/sts/set_brws_01.php?id=1033 Camera database] of the [http://sts.kahaku.go.jp/ Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology]
 
* Pages of the [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/index.htm R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]:
 
* Pages of the [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/index.htm R.&nbsp;Konishi Rokuoh-sha website]:
** [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm Sakura Reflex Plano]
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** [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano.htm Sakura Reflex Prano]
 
** [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/idearef0.htm Catalogue entry for the Idea Reflex (1911)] and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/idearef.htm larger picture]
 
** [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/idearef0.htm Catalogue entry for the Idea Reflex (1911)] and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/idearef.htm larger picture]
** [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano11year.htm Sakura Reflex Plano] and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/ideyareflex.htm Idea Reflex (1911)] in the [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/11year.htm camera list]
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** [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/reflexprano11year.htm Sakura Reflex Prano] and [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/ideyareflex.htm Idea Reflex (1911)] in the [http://www2f.biglobe.ne.jp/~ter-1212/sakura/11year.htm camera list]
   
   

Revision as of 19:49, March 29, 2008

Japanese plate cameras
Monocular cameras (edit)
No.0 (4×5cm) Secrette
atom (4.5×6cm) New Argus | Egorette | Secrette
Box cameras (edit)
No.0 (4×5cm) Adam | Hayatori Renshūyō
atom (4.5×6cm) Atom Hayatori Shashinki
meishi (5.5×8cm) Cherry
tefuda (8×10.5cm) Champion | Cherry | Sakura Army | Sakura Honor | Sakura Navy
nimaigake (8×12cm) Sakura Honor
kabine (12×16.5cm) Sakura Honor
Folding bed cameras (edit)
No.0 (4×5cm) Alpha | Sweet | Pony Sweet | Taishō-shiki
atom (4.5×6cm) Monarch | Need | Palma
meishi (5.5×8cm) Eagle | Idea A | Idea B | Idea Snap | Idea No.1 | Iris | Lily (horizontal) | Pearl No.3 | Special Camera | Venis | X
daimeishi (6.5×9cm) Apollo | Arcadia | Crite | Special East | Eaton | Elliotte | First | First Etui | Gold | Happy | Hope | Idea No.1 | Idea (metal) | Kinka | Kokka | Lily (horizontal) | Lily (metal) | Tropical Lily | Lloyd | Lomax | Masnette | Mikuni | Need | Nifca Klapp | Nifca Sport | Ohca | Palma | Peter | Prince | Prince Peerless | Proud | Romax | Rosen | Rubies | Sirius | Sun | Super | Tokiwa | Venus | Weha Idea | Weha Light
tefuda (8×10.5cm) Eagle | Idea A | Idea B | Idea No.1 | Idea (metal) | Iris | Lily (original) | Lily (horizontal) | Lily (metal) | Palma | Pearl No.3, No.4 | Minimum Pearl | Special Pearl | Sakura Palace | Sakura Pocket Prano | Star | Tokiwa | Weha
nimaigake (8×12cm) Eagle | Idea | Idea Binocular | Sakura Prano | Sakura Binocular Prano | Star Premo
hagaki (8×14cm) Eagle | Noble | Pearl No.3, No.4 | Star
kabine (12×16.5cm) Idea | Noble | Sakura Prano | Star Premo
Strut-folding cameras (edit)
No.0 (4×5cm) CH
atom (4.5×6cm) Idea Spring
meishi (5.5×8cm) Minimum Idea | Korok
daimeishi (6.5×9cm) Idea Spring | Minolta | Auto Minolta | Auto Press Minolta | Nifca-Dox | Vester Klapp
tefuda (8×10.5cm) Focal Happy | Idea Spring | Idea Telephoto
10×15cm Kongo Press
kabine (12×16.5cm) Idea Spring | Idea Telephoto
SLR cameras (edit)
atom (4.5×6cm) Simplex Reflex | Speed Reflex
meishi (5.5×8cm) Speed Reflex
daimeishi (6.5×9cm) Convex Reflex | Hogo Reflex | Idea Reflex (1932) | Neat Reflex | Simplex Reflex | Speed Reflex
tefuda (8×10.5cm) Idea Reflex (1910 and 1911) | Idea Reflex (1932) | Neat Reflex | Photo Deluxe Reflex | Speed Reflex
nimaigake (8×12cm) Idea Reflex (1910 and 1911) | Sakura Reflex Prano
kabine (12×16.5cm) Idea Reflex (1910 and 1911)
daikabine (13×18cm) Guaranteed Reflex
unknown Hardflex | Leinflex | Photoman Special Reflex
Stereo cameras
3.7×5cm Tokioscope
4×5in Idea Binocular | Sakura Binocular Prano
Japanese 3×4 and 4×4, 4×5 and 4×6.5, 4.5×6, 6×6 and 6×9 ->

The Sakura Reflex Prano (さくらレフレックスプラノ)[1] was the first Japanese SLR, made from 1907 by Rokuoh-sha, the manufacturing branch of Konishi (predecessor of Konica), and by various subcontractors.[2] It was succeeded by the similar Idea Reflex in 1910, then by a different Idea Reflex model in 1911.

The Sakura Reflex Prano and Idea Reflex (1910)

The only picture of the Sakura Reflex Prano observed so far is a drawing taken from an original catalogue.[3] It shows an exact copy of the Rochester Premo Reflecting Camera, with a box-shaped wooden body. There is a folding bed at the front; the lens standard is mounted on bellows and slides out of the main box. There is a large viewing hood at the top, further lengthened by trellis struts. A lever is visible on the right-hand side of the body, perhaps used to raise the mirror and trip the shutter.

The camera is said to have a focal plane shutter, initially giving 1/75 to 1/1200 speeds.[4] Other speed ranges are reported, with 1/1000 top speed.[5] The cameras were certainly hand-made one at a time, and these small variations are not surprising.

It is said that the Sakura Reflex Prano was only available in 4×5in format, called nimaigake (二枚掛) in Japan at the time.[6] It was offered with various lenses from Carl Zeiss or Goerz.[7] It was also available without a lens, reportedly for ¥135.[8]

The camera was renamed Idea Reflex in 1910.[9] It seems that the catalogue entry for this model was illustrated with the exact same drawing as for the Sakura Reflex Prano.[10] It is said that tefuda (8×10.5cm) and kabine (12×16.5cm) models were introduced, and top speed is reported as 1/1200.[11]

The Idea Reflex (1911)

The Idea Reflex was heavily modified in 1911. The new model is mainly known from an entry in the December 1911 catalogue of Konishi Honten,[12] where it is called "Idea" Reflex Hand Camera (アイデヤ、レフレックス手提暗函). Two versions are listed: the Idea Reflex No.1 (壹號) in tefuda size (8×10.5cm) and the Idea Reflex No.2 (貳號), in nimaigake (4×5in) and kabine (12×16.5cm) size. The text says that No.2 has a revolving back, which is implicitly absent from No.1.

The pictures show box-shaped SLR cameras with bellows and a large viewing hood. It seems that No.1 has no folding bed but large rack-and-pinion struts driven by a wheel on the photographer's right. No.2 has a folding bed and a front standard sliding on rails with a smaller rack-and-pinion device. Various shutter controls are visible on the right-hand side plate, including a winding key at the top. The picture of No.1 shows more controls on the right, and a table of shutter speeds. The picture of No.2 shows a leather handle on the right, less controls and no shutter speed table.

The cameras were available with or without a lens. The listed lenses are featured in further pages of the same catalogue, showing the Carl Zeiss lenses imported by Konishi.[13] The prices are summarized in the following table.

body version No.1 (tefuda) No.2 (nimaigake) No.2 (kabine)
lens option
body only ¥95 ¥135 ¥175
Carl Zeiss Tessar Series Ic 150/4.8, ¥176 180/4.5, ¥235 210/4.5, ¥300
Carl Zeiss Tessar Series IIb 135/6.3, ¥155 180/6.3, ¥198 210/6.3, ¥281

Notes

  1. The name "Prano" is sometimes written "Plano" by mistake. The two spellings would be pronounced the same in Japanese, but "Prano" is confirmed by an advertisement reproduced in this page at R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha.
  2. Lewis, p.20, however says that the Sakura Reflex Prano "so closely resembled the Western originals there is some question whether they were really Japanese copies, or whether they were imported cameras sold under the Sakura name".
  3. Illustration reproduced in Sakai, p.18 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, in this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology, and in this page of the R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha website.
  4. Sakai, p.18 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, and this page of the R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha website.
  5. Sakai, p.18 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, and this page of the Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology.
  6. Sakai, p.18 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, and this page of the R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha website.
  7. Lists are given in Sakai, p.18 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10, and in this page of the R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha website. They disagree on the focal length, the former saying 12.8cm, 15cm and 15.5cm, and the latter saying 21cm.
  8. Sakai, p.18 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  9. Kikuoka, p.28 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10; camera list of the R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha website.
  10. Drawing reproduced in Kikuoka, p.28 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  11. Kikuoka, p.28 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.10.
  12. Reprint of the December 1911 catalogue of Konishi Honten, p.14. The page is also reproduced in this page of the R. Konishi Rokuoh-sha website.
  13. Reprint of the December 1911 catalogue of Konishi Honten, pp.39–40.

Bibliography

Links

In Japanese:


Konishiroku prewar and wartime cameras (edit)
plate hand cameras stereo hand cameras strut folders box telephoto SLR
Idea (original) | Idea A | Idea B | Idea Snap | Idea No.1 | Idea (metal) | Lily (original) | Lily (horizontal) | Lily (metal) | Tropical Lily | Noble | Ohca | Sakura Palace | Sakura Pocket Prano | Sakura Prano Idea Binocular | Sakura Binocular Prano Minimum Idea | Idea Spring | Korok Champion | Cherry | Sakura Army | Sakura Honor | Sakura Navy Idea Telephoto Idea Reflex (1910 and 1911) | Idea Reflex (1932) | Neat Reflex | Sakura Reflex Prano
rollfilm folders box or collapsible TLR
Pearlette | Special Pearlette | B Pearlette | Pearl (for plates and rollfilm) | Pearl No.2 | Pearl (Year 8) | Baby Pearl | Semi Pearl | Sakura Palace Record | Sakura (box) | Sakura (bakelite) Sakura-flex
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