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A first '''rollfilm''' device was patented in 1854 by J. B. Spencer and A. J. Melhuish. It used "sheets of [[William Henry Fox Talbot|calotype]] paper gummed together and wound on rollers" [Coe]. In 1875 L. Warnecke got a patent on his "roller slide" for a more successful rollfilm variant, a paper roll with light sensitive dry collodion surface for 100 exposures. The rollholder was made well, but the film material was not. In 1884 William H. Walker and George Eastman developed a rollholder attachable to standard plate cameras. In 1885 they could present a new improved paper negative film which was called the "American Film". The light sensitive layer of that film was made of gelatine. After development the film was soaked with warm water so that the gelatine layer could be stripped from the paper strip and transfered onto glass plates or another transparent base. That way the gelatine layer became a transparent negative. Thus the print quality could be improved. That kind of film together with a Walker-Eastman rollholder was used for the [[Eastman Detective Camera]] developed by Eastman and F. M. Cossitt in 1886. A small number of these complicated cameras was made until 1888. The [[Kodak No. 1|Kodak Camera]] of 1888 was the most successful camera for "American Film", despite of the inconvenience that the whole camera had to be sent to the factory in Rochester when the film was exposed. There the film was developed, prints were made, and the camera was reloaded with a new 100 exposure film roll. The success of this camera was the base on which rollfilm [[box camera]]s stayed popular until the 1950s.
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Rollfilm is any type of film that is wound on a spool, when shot through the camera it usually ends up rolled back up again.
   
In 1888 Eastman engaged Henry M. Reichenbach to find a transparent substitute for the paper base of the rollfilm. He found celluloid (cellulose nitrate) of which flexible transparent foils could be made. Contemporary film makers had already used celluloid plates as replacement for glass plates. The foil got coated with gelatine film emulsion.
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Some common types of rollfilms are:
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* 120
In 1891 a daylight loading version of roll film was offered by [[Kodak]], the roll enclosed in a carton, with paper ends to have the film enwrapped light-tight when loading or unloading. The modern paper backed roll film was introduced with the [[Boston Camera Manufacturing Company]]'s [[No. 2 Bulls-Eye]] box camera which was the first that had a [[red window]] as exposure counting facility for such film. [[Kodak]] bought the company so as not to be obliged to pay a license fee for the red window. The most popular roll film format type [[120 film|No. 120]] was introduced with Kodak's Brownie No. 2 in 1901. Other popular rollfilm formats were [[620 film|type No. 620]] and [[127 film|127]].
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* 220
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* 620
{{Flickr image
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* 127
| image_source=http://www.flickr.com/photos/50678983@N00/423087604/in/pool-camerapedia
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* 828
| image=http://farm1.static.flickr.com/187/423087604_4012f1d58a.jpg
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* 116{{br}}
| image_align=left
 
| image_text=type No. 120 film roll and carton - once called cartridge film<br>because the film roll was resembling a shotgun cartridge
 
}}{{Flickr image
 
| image_source=http://www.flickr.com/photos/24225011@N04/2445574350/in/pool-camerapedia/
 
| image=http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2390/2445574350_e724bdfc2f_o.jpg
 
| image_align=left
 
| image_text=Roll film spools: 127, E29, 620, 120 (metal), 120 (wood), 116
 
}}{{br}}
 
   
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
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* Coe, Brian: ''The Birth Of Photography'', 1976
 
* Coe, Brian: ''The Birth Of Photography'', 1976
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* [http://www.google.com/patents?id=TZtrAAAAEBAJ Eastman Dry Plate Roll Holder patent 414735], Thomas Taylor
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* [http://www.google.com/patents?id=di9cAAAAEBAJ&dq=461308 Blair Rollholder patent 461308]
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* [http://www.google.com/patents?id=O9VpAAAAEBAJ&jtp=1#PPA1,M1 US Patent 539,713, Photographic Film Roll], S N Turner, 21 May 1895
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* [http://www.historiccamera.com/cgi-bin/librarium/pm.cgi?action=display&login=blair_camco Blair Camera Company history]
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* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/52013582@N07/7802180084/in/photostream Kodak Verichrome 127] Rollfilm picture and additional information at [http://www.flickr.com/photos/52013582@N07/ "Antique_Camera_Guy's"] Flickr Photostream
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* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/52013582@N07/8009072268/in/photostream Kodak 620 Rollfilm] picture and additional information at [http://www.flickr.com/photos/52013582@N07/ "Antique_Camera_Guy's"] Flickr Photostream
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<references />
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*
   
 
{{glossary}}
 
{{glossary}}

Latest revision as of 19:25, December 1, 2015

Rollfilm is any type of film that is wound on a spool, when shot through the camera it usually ends up rolled back up again.

Some common types of rollfilms are:

  • 120
  • 220
  • 620
  • 127
  • 828
  • 116

SourcesEdit

Glossary Terms
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