The Konica (or Konica I) and its successors the Konica II, and Konica III are fixed-lens, leaf-shutter rangefinder 35mm (24×36mm) cameras that Konishiroku made from 1947 until 1959 or 1960.

Rubikon and Rubicon[]

The Konica was based on an earlier camera called Rubikon, developed by Konishiroku for general purpose photography from c.1938.[1] It was not commercially released and its development was stopped at some point in the late 1930s, because priority was given to the production of aerial cameras for the war effort.[2]

This camera is extremely similar to the Konica, and even the smaller parts show little difference. The top cover is inscribed Rokuoh-sha and Rubikon and has a serial number. At least one prototype is known with a Hexar Ser.IIB 50mm f/3.5 lens (no.3001) and a Compur-Rapid shutter (T, B, 1–500).[3] Others are reported, mostly with a Hexar lens, and sometimes with a different shutter.source needed Some of these might still exist today.[4]

The basic body chassis of the Rubikon was used for a specialized camera for X-ray photography, called Rubicon (with a "c" rather than a "k"), released in late 1940 together with the Sakura X-ray film.[5] This has no finder and uses a dark slide to control exposure, instead of a true shutter (X-ray exposures were rather longer than film exposures, and didn't need to be as precise). The Rubicon X-Ray camera comes in several variants — one with a knob to advance the film,source needed another with a "wing nut" film advance. Most were fitted with a male bayonet mount, to which a Luminon 50mm f/1.6 lens is attached.[6]

With its potential medical applications, the production of the Rubicon X-ray camera certainly continued during the war. The original model was made until 1950, when it was replaced by the Rubicon II, with a chain-driven advance knob, a rewind crank and a differently placed exposure counter.

Konica series[]

After the war during the occupation, production of the film camera was restarted and the name Konica was chosen to be used instead.

Similarly to "Leica", "Yashica" and many others, the name "Konica" was constructed by abbreviating the name of the manufacturer and suffixing "ca" (for "camera"). It would only later become the name of the company too.

Throughout the period when it was manufactured and sold, the Konica was the only camera for 135 film from Konishiroku, although the company also made the Konilette (earlier clamshell models) for paper-backed, unperforated 35mm film. Meanwhile, the main product for 120 film was the Pearl, and even the numbering of the Konica and Pearl seem to have gone up together.[7] Total production of the Konica (I) through the IIIM exceeded four hundred thousand.[8]

The Konica models dealt with here were followed by the Konica S, and its successors: very much 1960s designs.

Konica (I)[]

See also the article Konica I

The Konica (later known as the Konica I or Konica Standard) is a knob-wound camera with a single eyepiece for the coupled rangefinder and viewfinder. It has a 50mm Konishiroku lens and a Konirapid shutter with speeds B, 1–500. The only shutter release is on the lens barrel, which also has a lever for cocking the shutter. The top of the camera is inscribed Konica (with the tail of the "a" hooking back to the "K" and beyond) and the number.

The dimensions are 132×80×65 mm and weight is 580g.[9]

Very early versions were prototypes, some fitted with Hexar 5cm f4.f lenses in Durax or Compur shutters. Some of these might date to before WWII. Among the regular production cameras, there are a number of variants. One of the very earliest examples (from March 1948[10]), the lens is a collapsible f/3.5 Hexar (four elements in three groups, with 26mm hood size), the shutter is a Konirapid (T, B, 1–500), the finish plate over the front of the shutter is black, with Konishiroku and concentric arcs picked out in silver, the distance scale is marked in metres, and the top also says Made in occupied Japan. Konishiroku is embossed in a large arc in the leatherette on the back, and, in some cases, MADE IN OCCUPIED JAPAN also embossed in the leatherette of the bottom plate. The price was ¥19,400. Approx. 4000 of the early black-face shutter versions were believed to have been made.

The next version (March 1948) with a shutter finish plate that is silver rather than black, takes a 32mm hood. Most were no longer marked Made in occupied Japan on top, only on the bottom. After approx. 20,000 copies, the large Konishiroku no longer was embossed on the back of the camera. Apparently some were made in error without MIOJ impressed in the bottom leatherette. Some examples have been found where a cutout was made and a small piece of leatherette imprinted with Made In Occupied Japan was inserted.

The knurled knob on the bottom of the camera serves to operate the a latch for the film door. Set it to "C" to lock the door closed. Turn it to "O" in order to open the film door. Some examples are known marked with Japanese Kenji characters instead of "C" and "O".

Next in April 1950 came a version with a Konirapid-S shutter (B, 1–500) synchronized for flash (K-type sync post)— and which was advertised as Synchro Konica (シンクロコニカ, shinkuro konika), but still simply inscribed Konica — and f/3.5 or f/2.8 Hexar lens. (For the latter, the depth is 68.5mm, weight 620g, and price ¥23,800.) Made in occupied Japan is no longer imprinted anywhere, replaced on the bottom simply with Made in Japan. The f/3.5 and f/2.8 versions were sold concurrently. Tests of the camera were published around 1948[11] and it was advertised in magazines dated June 1948 through June 1950.[12]

This in turn was followed in August 1951 by a version with an f/2.8 Hexanon lens (615g), and distances marked in feet for the US market. Puportedly, this version also features a redesigned and improved viewfinder and rangefinder mechanism. That may be the case, but isn't very obvious to the naked eye. It was advertised in magazines dated August 1950 through January 1951.[13]

Something of the order of a hundred thousand Konica (I) cameras were sold.[14]

At least one company (not Konishiroku) offered a conversion that added a device akin to a body release: the new button is at the level of and immediately in front of the top plate; it operates a lever that pushes down the button on the lens barrel.[15]

Konica II[]

The Konica II (from 1951) provides a body release. It has a rigid lens, and an accessory shoe. It requires the shutter to be cocked, as on a conventional rollfilm camera of the time: firing the shutter allows the film to be wound further and prevents the shutter from being cocked and fired again unless the film is wound. This provides positive accidental double exposure protection, something that was sorely missing from the original Konica "I".

Together with its variants (the Konica IIA, IIB, etc.), the Konica II looks very different from earlier and later models. The circular lens mount is not attached directly to the leather of the body covering as on the Konica (I); instead, it is attached to a metal plate mounted over the leather, a plate extending from the top housing to the bottom plate and whose sides are curved. (The Konica III would retain this plate but make it smaller, and do away with the curves.)

The view from the top shows the expected film advance on the right, doubling as the frame counter, and the rewind knob on the left, doubling as a film reminder. The shutter release button is close to the film advance knob and toward the front. The accessory shoe is slightly to the right of centre. The top of the housing is inscribed Konica (again with a decorative end to the "a") and below this, and in much taller lettering, either II (for all the models discussed in this section other than the IIA) or IIA.

Viewed from the front, just within the top left extremity of the curvacious metal plate is, on II and IIA versions, you will find a knob with two positions: I and T. This is not a self-timer. "I" stands for "Instantaneous" and "T" stands for "Timed". The "T" setting provides for extra long exposures... Press the shutter release button once to open the shutter. Press it a second time to close the shutter. This is different from "B" or "Bulb" setting found on many of the shutters, with which you press the release once and need to maintain pressure on it as long as you want to keep the shutter open. The I/T knob needs to be set to "I" in order to use the shutter speeds provided on the shutter itself (1 second to 1/500 in an archaic progression on all II models). On cheaper versions the T/I knob is replaced by a decorative round plate.

No self-timer or shutter delay is provided on any of the Konica II models. An accessory self-timer clockwork mechanism was and is available, that threads into the shutter release button. (Konica III models would add a self-timer feature, either a lever on the camera body or on the shutter itself.)

The threaded shutter release button allows a cable release to be attached and used, too. All Konica II and III models were originally fitted with a finishing cap that screws into the shutter release button and provides a nice, neat platform to press. Those finishing caps are small, so if removed were often lost and missing.

Toward its bottom left, the larger plate is, on all but the cheaper versions, inscribed 24X36. (On other versions there is no inscription of any kind.)

The appearance of the camera is slick and modern — 1950s rather than 1940s — but the camera is knob wound and rewound.

The dimensions are 132×77×59 mm and weight is 685g.[16] Sales of the Konica II and its variants totaled over 120,000.[17]

The original Konica II, released in December 1951, has a 50mm f/2.8 Hexanon lens (five elements in three groups) and a Konirapid-S shutter (T, B, 1–500). It is inscribed 24X36.[18] It was priced at ¥38,000 and advertised in magazines dated from February 1952 till February 1955.[19]

The Konica IIB is a cheaper version. The lens is a 50mm Hexar rather than Hexanon, whose aperture is either f/3.5 (from May 1955) or f/2.8 (from June 1955); T is no longer an option on the shutter; and the I/T knob is replaced by a round cover marked Konica B. However, the shutter is still the Konirapid-S, with (T aside) the full range of shutter speeds up to 500. The IIB lacks the 24X36 inscription.[20] It was advertised in magazines dated August–December 1955, and priced at ¥27,000.[21]

The Konica II"F" (February 1956) has a 50mm f/2.8 Hexanon lens and a Konirapid-MFX shutter. Rather few of these were made. Note: The II"F" might be a casual model designation. No cameras actually appear to be labelled this way. The II"F" appears to simply be a minor update of the original II, with all the same features and markings, using the same Hexanon 50mm f/2.8 lens, but now in the new Konirapid-MFX shutter (which also would shortly appear on the IIA). Casually named models are distinctions, often made by users, and perhaps store employees and the photo industry, but not an official model designation by the manufacturer. Other examples of these were the "L1" and "L2" designations applied to the Konica III series, and later in the Autoreflex SLR line T"2", FTA"2", A"2" and T3"N". None of these were ever actually labelled as such, but are often referenced, sometimes even in Konishiroku literature. [22]

The Konica IIA (March 1956) is substantially the same as the II"F" except for its lens. It is the first model fitted with the superb 48mm f/2 Hexanon (six elements in five groups). This lens received high praise from reviewers of the day... Some when so far as to call it one of the best five or ten lenses ever made. Like the II"F", the lens is in a Konirapid-MFX shutter.[23] The top plate is inscribed Konica IIA, as noted above. It was advertised in magazines dated April and May 1956, and priced at ¥35,000.[24]

The Konica IIB-m (February 1957) is a revision of the IIB. The lens is now a 45mm f/3.5 Hexar, and the shutter a Seikosha-MX (B, 1–500). The cover replacing the I/T knob is marked IIB-m (with no mention of Konica). It was advertised in magazines dated November 1956 until March 1957, and priced at ¥22,500.[25]

The distinctive external appearance of the Konica II was shamelessly aped by Tōkyō Kōken for its Dolca 35 II.[26]

Interchangeable-lens prototype[]

Inspired by the Kodak Retina IIc and IIIc in early 1954, Konishiroku worked on an interchangeable-lens Konica II, believed to be designated Konica FR. It had Hexanon 50/1.9 and 85/3.5 lens heads, sharing a fixed rear section from the shutter back. It was displayed in an exhibition of future products held by the company from October 21 in three Tokyo department stores, simultaneously with the teleconverter for the Koniflex TLR and various lenses in Leica screw mount; it never went into production.[27]

Konica III[]

The Konica III (from 1956) is a considerable advance from the Konica II: the shutter is cocked by the film advance.

The Konica III (as well as the IIIA and IIIM, discussed below) is immediately distinguishable from the Konica II (and all its variations) thanks to the film wind lever, which is not on the top but instead on the front of the camera and invites the use of the forefinger (or thumb) of the photographer's left hand (similar to that on the Adox 300 and Zeiss Tenax). This lever needs two strokes and cocks the shutter at the same time as it winds the film. The curvaceous metal plate between leather and lens on the II is reduced and made more rectangular. The self-timer control (where present) becomes a lever and the film rewind knob also has a fold-out crank, both of the kind then becoming conventional. The top cover is engraved Konica, below this (and much taller) III, and below this (and much smaller) NO. and the serial number. Each model has a 48mm Hexanon lens (six elements in five groups).

The dimensions are 132×80×64 mm and weight is 760g.[28]

Sales of the Konica III and its variants (including the IIIA and IIIM) totaled over 170,000.[29]

The original Konica III (or Konica IIIMFX, September 1956) has an f/2 lens (six elements in five groups) with Konirapid MFX shutter (B, 1–500). It cost ¥34,500, including case[30] or $119.75.[31] It weighs 750g.[32]

The Konica IIIL (or Konica III "MXL" or Konica III "L1", April 1957) has a Seikosha MXL shutter, with the then-popular light-value system. Quite aside from the arguable irritations of the LV interlock, this particular implementation is rather half-baked as the LV setting itself is on the bottom of the lens barrel, so the camera must be inverted in order to adjust it. The optical design of the lens is unchanged. It was introduced in the Japanese magazines dated June to August 1957.

All the subsequent models too would have Seikosha shutters: Konishiroku, like smaller companies making shutters, realized it could not compete with the quality and scale of Seikosha and Copal.[33]

Not surprisingly, a Konica III "L2" (or Konica III "MXL2") succeeded the IIIL, with the LV setting on the top rather than bottom of the lens barrel. It was introduced in the magazines dated January and February 1958.

The LV feature provides an interlock between the shutter and aperture settings. Once set for correct exposure, if it were necessary, for example, to change the shutter speed, the interlock causes the aperture to change as well, to maintain correct exposure. An accessory, cold-shoe-mounted Konicameter LV was offered to take fullest advantage of this feature.

A cheaper version of the III "L2" has an f/2.4 lens and no self timer (March 1958). (This is the least common of the variants of the III.[34]) It was introduced in the magazines dated May 1958.

Konica IIIA and IIIM[]

While the nomenclature of Konica's next pair of cameras suggests that neither differed from the III more than, say, the IIA differed from the II, they are improved so dramatically as to be considered separately, perhaps as a misnamed IV and V.[35]

The major change is to the viewfinder, greatly enlarged and brightened, plus with projecting brightline framelines that adjust automatically not only for parallax error correction but also for field size.

This larger finder necessitates a higher top cover, such that the rewind crank of the III would foul it if not radically redesigned. The crank is therefore stepped and folding.

Konica IIIA[]

When viewed from the front, the Konica IIIA (April 1958) has three finder windows, of which the viewfinder is fairly large even by today's standards. The three are for the rangefinder, projected brightlines, and viewfinder (and rangefinder) respectively.

The finder has 1.0× magnification, such that the photographer can easily look through it with right eye while keeping the left eye open. The lens is a 48mm f/2 Hexanon in Seikosha-MXL shutter with LV system; filter size 35.5mm. Dimensions are 133×81×65mm; weight 800g.[36]

In July 1958 came the option of a 50mm f/1.8 Hexanon (70mm deep, weight 820g). The same Seikosha-MXL shutter continued to be used.[37]

The two models were available simultaneously, for ¥32,800 and ¥34,800 respectively, including case.[38]

Konica IIIM[]

The Konica IIIM (March 1959) adds an exposure meter and half-frame capability to the faster (50/1.8) version of the IIIA.

The meter accounts for two add-ons: a match-needle readout module where the self-timer lever is on the III, and a flap hinged across the top that encloses a set of selenium cells against the finder windows when the camera is not in use and opens them over the front when it is in use.

The selenium cell assembly is partially made of plastic, which can be easily damaged. It's possible, perhaps even advisable for someone wanting to use the camera, to remove the meter cell assembly simply by pushing the hinge pin out toward one side or the other. It's just as easily reinstalled later. Without the meter cell assembly installed, the shape and profile of the camera is very similar to the IIIA.

The IIIM was only ever offered with the Hexanon 50mm f/1.8 lens, but it can be found with two different shutters: Seikosha-SLV and, later, Copal-MXV. These provide a self-timer function, since the lever on the camera body was supplanted by the meter readout module. The Seikosha shutter provides an LV function, similar to what was described on III "L1" an "L2" above. The Copal shutter does not probide an LV function.

On the Copal-MXV you will find a small switch labelled "M", "X" and "V". The "V" setting is a 10-second self timer. "M" is for use with flash bulbs. Leave this set to "X" for normal shooting or use with a electronic flash. You will also find a tab labelled "ASA", which needs to be set to match the film speed being used, in order for the light meter to read correctly. (ASA and modern ISO are the same.)

The IIIM also came with a mask for half-frame photography. Inserting this automates a change to the appropriate film spacing and numbering systems. Half frame is indicated by brightlines within the viewfinder. The two-stroke film advance lever only needs a single stroke when using the camera in half-frame mode.

The finder windows are redesigned from the IIIA, such that two large windows appear, rather than three.

The IIIM cost ¥36,500, including case.[39]


  1. Miyazaki, p.14.
  2. Miyazaki, p.14.
  3. Example pictured in Miyazaki, p.16.
  4. Miyazaki, p.14, says that one or more prototypes were kept by the company after the development was stopped, and that they were used after the war to develop the Konica, but this does not imply that these still exist today.
  5. Miyazaki, p.14.
  6. Luminon 50mm f/1.6: Miyazaki, p.14. The bayonet mount and Luminon lens are pictured on p.15.
  7. Simplified sequence: Semi Pearl, Konica (I), Pearl (I), Konica II, Pearl II, Pearl III, Konica III, Konica IIIA, Pearl IV, Konica IIIM. Other Konishiroku cameras of the period were limited to the Snappy subminiature and the Koniflex TLR. (Konishiroku was also making lenses for Leica-mount cameras, notably the Honor.) The SLR cameras would start a little later.
  8. Miyazaki, p. 37.
  9. Figures are for the Konica I with f/3.5 lens, silver plate. Source: Itō, "Konica I", p.59.
  10. Unless noted otherwise, all month–year references in this article are to the initial sale within Japan and are derived from Miyazaki.
  11. According to Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.351: Ars Camera, November 1948; Kōga Gekkan, February 1947 and March 1948; Shashin Salon, January 1953 (comparative evaluation); etc.
  12. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.359.
  13. Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.359.
  14. Figure obtained by subtracting Miyazaki's figures for the II and subsequent models from the figure for the whole series.
  15. Depicted in Miyazaki, p.23.
  16. Figures are for the original Konica II. Source: Itō, "Konica II", p.114.
  17. Miyazaki, p. 26.
  18. Uniquely, T and I are marked on the I/T knob itself: one turns this so one or other is aligned with a mark at the bottom of the top housing. Earlier copies have a Konirapid-S shutter that uses a K-type (Kodak) sync post. Later production uses a Konirapid-S updated version featuring a modern PC-type (Prontor/Compur) sync post. All other Konica II models seem to use the latter.
  19. Span of advertising: Kokusan kamera no rekishi. Price: Miyazaki, p.26.
  20. As does the IIBm. Sizes such as 24×32 and 24×34 were initially popular in Japan as a way to reduce the waste of film, but unpopular with American commercial film processors. Perhaps the cheaper versions of the Konica II were neither sold to the US military nor exported, but this is mere speculation. Regardless of the presence or absence of this inscription, all models have a frame size of 24×36mm.
  21. Asahi Camera, August 1955; reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.137. Price: Miyazaki, p.26.
  22. Miyazaki, p.29.
  23. A minor detail of this model is that I and T are inscribed on the plate outside the I/T knob; one turns the knob so that its index mark matches one or the other.
  24. Price: Miyazaki, p.26.
  25. Price: Miyazaki, p.26.
  26. As charmingly illustrated by Miyazaki, p.30, and in this page by Nekosan.
  27. All the information about this prototype is from Miyazaki, pp.29–30. Hagiya, p.130 of Sekai no Raika renzu, specifies that the exhibition of future products took place in three department stores, perhaps implying that several prototypes were completed. He also says that "three types of interchangeable lenses for a 35mm leaf shutter camera" were displayed, implying that there was a third lens option. No such prototype (and indeed no Konishiroku prototype from before 1957) was exhibited in the Konica Minolta exhibition held at the JCII Camera Museum in 2005, so presumably no prototype remains in the possession of Konica Minolta (or Sony).
  28. Figures are for the Konica IIIL. Source: Itō, "Konica III", p.63.
  29. Miyazaki, p.31.
  30. Advertisement in Asahi Camera, special edition for summer 1957; reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.242.
  31. Advertisement in National Geographic, may 1957, p.566.
  32. Miyazaki, p.34.
  33. Miyazaki, p. 32 (although Miyazaki does not name Copal).
  34. Miyazaki, p. 34.
  35. This may be related to the well-known east Asian reluctance to number things (products, hotel floors, etc.) as four. But clearly any such reluctance wasn't overwhelmingly strong: note the Canon IV, and even the Pearl IV from Konishiroku itself.
  36. Hishida, p.76. In fact what Hishida writes is rather more complex: what looks like a set of typos — involving a variant IIIA that, without explanation, is 10mm wider than either this or the IIIM — has been regularized for this article.
  37. Hishida p.75.
  38. Advertisement in Asahi Camera, September 1958; reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.243.
  39. Advertisement in Asahi Camera May 1959, reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.243.

Further reading[]

In English:

  • Herz, Nat. Konica Pocket Handbook. New York: Verlan Books ("A Universal Photo Book"), 1960. A detailed guide to the Konica IIIA and IIIM, as well as the Konica S and 35mm photography in general. (The copy examined also has a separately paginated section, The Konica FS and Konica F: A Guide to Better Single-Lens Reflex Photography, covering the Konica FS and Konica F, bound within the same covers.)
  • The Japanese Historical Camera. 2nd ed. Tokyo: JCII Camera Museum, 2004. P.83 (Konica IIA), p.84 (Konica III), p.93 (Konica IIIA), p.97 (Konica IIIM).
  • Lewis, Gordon, ed. The History of the Japanese Camera. Rochester, N.Y.: George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography & Film, 1991. ISBN 0-935398-17-1 (paper), ISBN 0-935398-16-3 (hard). Pp. 62, 76, 94, 99, 101.
  • Johnny Martyr Behold, the Konica III

In Japanese:

  • Reports in Shashin Kōgyō on the Konica II: May 1952, May 1953, November 1953, April 1955.
  • Report in Sankei Camera on the Konica IIA: May 1956.
  • Test of the Konica III, Shashin Kōgyō October 1956.
  • Test of the Konica III (with Seikosha-MXL shutter), as the first ever installment of "New Face Clinic", Asahi Camera, August 1957.
  • Test of the Konica III, Shashin Salon, March 1958.
  • Akiyama Seiji (秋山青磁). Konika no tsukaikata (コニカの使い方). Tokyo: Amico, 1950.
  • Akiyama Seiji (秋山青磁). Atarashii Konika no tsukaikata (新しいコニカの使い方). Tokyo: Amico, 1955. On the Konica IIB.
  • Asahi Camera (アサヒカメラ) editorial staff. Shōwa 10–40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10–40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935–1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Items 512–15, 1261–6.
  • Hishida (菱田耕四郎). "Konica history 10: Sengo no kamera" (戦後のカメラ, Postwar cameras). Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.10, September 1987. No ISBN number. Konishiroku kamera no rekishi (小西六カメラの歴史, special issue on Konishiroku). Pp.60–80.
  • Itō Tsuguyoshi (伊藤ニ良). "Konika I" (コニカ I). Utsushite tanoshimu kurashikku kamera (写して楽しむクラシックカメラ). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2001. ISBN 4879560636 Pp.59–62.
  • Itō Tsuguyoshi (伊藤ニ良). "Konika II" (コニカ II). Utsushite tanoshimu kurashikku kamera 3 (写して楽しむクラシックカメラ 3). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2005. ISBN 4879560742 Pp.114–19.
  • Itō Tsuguyoshi (伊藤ニ良). "Konika III" (コニカ III). Utsushite tanoshimu kurashikku kamera (写して楽しむクラシックカメラ). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2001. ISBN 4879560636 Pp.63–8.
  • Iwama Tomohisa (岩間倶久). Konika no tsukaikata (コニカの使い方). Tokyo: Kōgasō, 1956.
  • Konica Group. Konika III gata no tsukaikata (コニカIII形の使い方). Tokyo: Amico, 1957. Written by a group of Konishiroku employees.
  • Konica Group. Konika IIIM no tsukaikata (コニカIIIMの使い方). Tokyo: Amico, 1959. Written by a group of Konishiroku employees.
  • Konika-Minoruta-ten (コニカミノルタ展, Konica Minolta exhibition). Exhibition catalogue. Tokyo: JCII Camera Museum, 2005. P.10.
  • Konishiroku Kamera no Rekishi (小西六カメラの歴史, History of Konishiroku cameras), vol. 10 (Autumn 1985 issue) of Kamera Rebyū Bessatsu: Kurashikku Kamera Senka / All about Historical Cameras.
  • Miki Akira (三木旺), et al. Konika no kansei (コニカの完成). Tokyo: Amico, 1953. On the Konica II.
  • Miyazaki Shigemoto (宮崎繁幹). Konika kamera no 50nen: Konika I-gata kara Hekisā RF e (コニカカメラの50年:コニカI型からヘキサーRFへ, Fifty years of Konica cameras: From the Konica I to the Hexar RF). Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 2003. ISBN 4-257-12038-X. Pp.18–57, 183.
  • Photo Art rinji zōkan: Kamera akusesarī zensho (フォトアート臨時増刊・カメラアクセサリー全書, Photo Art special issue: All the camera accessories). June 1955, no.80 of the magazine. "Naigai kōkan renzu sōran" (内外交換レンズ総覧, Table and Japanese and foreign interchangeable lenses). Pp.78–9.
  • Tanimura Yoshihiko (谷村吉彦). "Konika I" (コニカ I). Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.35, November 1995. Nihon no kamera 50nen (日本のカメラ50年, special issue on 50 years of Japanese cameras). P.87.
  • Tanimura Yoshihiko (谷村吉彦). "Konika IIIA" (コニカ IIIA). Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.35, November 1995. Nihon no kamera 50nen (日本のカメラ50年, special issue on 50 years of Japanese cameras). P.94.
  • Yoshikawa Hayao (吉川速男). Watakushi no Konica to gentō (私のコニカと幻燈, My Konica and slides). 1948.


In English:

In French :

In Japanese:

In Chinese: