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The anonymous<REF> The advertising material published by a company follows the same rules as anonymous documents, unless it is explicitly signed by an individual or some individual later claimed to be the original author. </REF> documents published in Japan between January 1st, 1946 and January 1st, 1958 are in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain public domain] in the following countries (as of 2008):
 
The anonymous<REF> The advertising material published by a company follows the same rules as anonymous documents, unless it is explicitly signed by an individual or some individual later claimed to be the original author. </REF> documents published in Japan between January 1st, 1946 and January 1st, 1958 are in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain public domain] in the following countries (as of 2008):
* laws of Japan: the copyrights for an anonymous work expire 50 years after its first publication<REF> [http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/clj/cl2_2.html#cl2_2+S4 Copyright law of Japan] (from the [http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/index.html CRIC website]), chapter II, section 4. </REF>
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* Japan: the copyrights for an anonymous work expire 50 years after its first publication<REF> [http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/clj/cl2_2.html#cl2_2+S4 Copyright law of Japan] (from the [http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/index.html CRIC website]), chapter II, section 4. </REF>
* laws of the European Union: the "shorter term" rule applies to foreign works, and foreign documents which are already in public domain in their home country are not protected in the European Union<REF> [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993L0098:EN:HTML Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonizing the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights], art.7. </REF>
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* countries of the European Union: the "shorter term" rule applies to foreign works, and foreign documents which are already in public domain in their home country are not protected in the European Union<REF> [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993L0098:EN:HTML Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonizing the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights], art.7. </REF>
   
 
They are not in public domain in the United States, where the foreign works which were not already in public domain in their home country as of January 1st, 1996 were subject to copyright restoration, and are protected until 95 years after their date of first publication.<REF> [http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States, 1 January 2007], by Peter B. Hirtle. </REF> The publication of advertising material published in Japan in that period probably falls under [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_use fair use] for the US legislation, and it is thus accepted in Camerapedia.
 
They are not in public domain in the United States, where the foreign works which were not already in public domain in their home country as of January 1st, 1996 were subject to copyright restoration, and are protected until 95 years after their date of first publication.<REF> [http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States, 1 January 2007], by Peter B. Hirtle. </REF> The publication of advertising material published in Japan in that period probably falls under [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_use fair use] for the US legislation, and it is thus accepted in Camerapedia.

Revision as of 22:33, 1 January 2008

The anonymous[1] documents published in Japan between January 1st, 1946 and January 1st, 1958 are in public domain in the following countries (as of 2008):

  • Japan: the copyrights for an anonymous work expire 50 years after its first publication[2]
  • countries of the European Union: the "shorter term" rule applies to foreign works, and foreign documents which are already in public domain in their home country are not protected in the European Union[3]

They are not in public domain in the United States, where the foreign works which were not already in public domain in their home country as of January 1st, 1996 were subject to copyright restoration, and are protected until 95 years after their date of first publication.[4] The publication of advertising material published in Japan in that period probably falls under fair use for the US legislation, and it is thus accepted in Camerapedia.


  1. The advertising material published by a company follows the same rules as anonymous documents, unless it is explicitly signed by an individual or some individual later claimed to be the original author.
  2. Copyright law of Japan (from the CRIC website), chapter II, section 4.
  3. Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonizing the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights, art.7.
  4. Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States, 1 January 2007, by Peter B. Hirtle.
Community content is available under GFDL unless otherwise noted.