Anonymous documents published before January 1st, 1923 are in the public domain in the following jurisdictions:

  • the United States, where any document published before January 1st, 1923 is in the public domain;[1]
  • the European Union, where the copyrights for an anonymous work expire 70 years after its first publication;[2]
  • Japan, where the copyrights for an anonymous work expire 50 years after its first publication.[3]

Advertising material published by a company follows the same rules as anonymous documents, unless (a) it is explicitly signed by an individual or (b) some individual later claimed to be the original author.


Community content is available under GFDL unless otherwise noted.